Parenting in Lockdown continues to present us all with challenges. From experience, COVID-19 is having a huge impact on children and young people’s sleep. Screen time increased and bedtimes seemed to have been getting later. Does this sound like your family? Be reassured, you are not the only one. Today, I will discuss why sleep is so important, the latest research. In addition, several tips to help you all have a good sleep whether your children are returning to school or remaining at home.
Why is Sleep so Important?.
Sleep is important to all of us, but especially if your child is showing you their stress through tantrums, meltdowns and anxiety. The impact of sleep deprivation is:
- Cognitive and behavioral difficulties due to greater emotionality such as tantrums, clinginess. Aggression and lack of social interaction.
- Impaired ability to retain new memories
- Increased afternoon and evening cortisol (stress hormone) levels
- Increased feelings of hunger can lead to overeating.
- Lack of growth, Growth hormone is secreted during sleep.
- Long term attentional ( unable to concentrate) and cognitive difficulties. Early sleep difficulties are associated with concurrent attentional, emotional, and behavioural problems ( Bruni et al., 2000; Hvolby, Jorgensen, & Bilenberg, 2008; Lavigne et al., 1999; Minde, Faucon, & Falkner, 1994) and predict the onset of such problems in later childhood and adolescence, even after controlling for the stability of sleep disturbance and demographics.)
What signs to look for if your child is sleep deprived.
The Research during COVID-19.
This month, the Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry published a paper that suggests the potential for sleep problems to emerge or worsen during and following the pandemic is high. (Ref: Sleep Council)
The Impact on Sleep.
The survey found that as many as 70% of children under 16 are going to bed later – but are also waking later (57%) – showing that a significant drift in bedtime schedules has already happened. This represents a clear risk with an obvious knock-on effect when schools re-open. In addition, The survey also reveals that a third of children are sleeping longer than normal, indicating that it will be harder to transition back to previous sleep routines once they return to school.
Causes During COVID 19.
There may be many causes, from trying to adapt to working from home and in addition to teaching your children. Children are separated from friends, school and other family members. The majority of children are working online. Children are becoming more heavily reliant on technology with nearly three quarters (74%) of parents reporting that their children are using electronic devices (TVs, tablets, gaming machines, and phones) significantly more during the coronavirus lockdown.
In addition, it also cites parental and family stressors such as job loss and increased parental conflict. It’s hard to find immediate solutions for these issues.
Why Does Screen Time Affect our Sleep cycle?
There are two systems a 24 hour cycle called the circadian rhythm and the Homeostatic sleep drive. They work together.
Homeostatic Sleep Drive
Although it has a complicated name, it is easy to understand. The longer you stay awake, the sleepier you are. Sleep drive essentially is your likelihood of falling asleep at a given time. Interestingly, this phenomenon is caused by the gradual accumulation of a neurotransmitter called adenosine during the day ( caffeine affects decreases uptake, ( makes you less sleepy, so drink coffee in the morning)
- Melatonin is the hormone that regulates sleep. Melatonin production depends on light
- Exposing eyes to light during the day especially the morning increases melatonin at night and helps us feel sleepy at night.
High exposure to blue light from screens affects melatonin uptake. Exposing eyes to light from screens in the evening decreases melatonin which means we feel less sleepy.
- Have breakfast outside. Get out into the sun in the morning sunlight, rather than the evening light.
- Allow the sun to come through their blinds!
- Ensure no screen time for at least an hour before bed.
- Keep activities quiet at least 1-2 hours before bedtime.
- Try to keep schoolwork and out of the bedroom. Ideally, use bedrooms just for sleeping or make a clear distinction between daytime bed use and night‐time bed use (e.g. by changing a cover, sleep pillows versus wake pillows).
- Ensure filters on phones, tablets, and computers
- Most night lights actually emit blue light, change to lights on the Amber Spectrum
Adjust their bedtimes now
It can take time to readjust bedtimes and find sleep solutions. It may be helpful to start to take back the bedtime 15 minutes and in addition, wake them earlier. So if your child is falling asleep around 9:00 pm and you need to get bedtime to 7:30 pm for the school return it will take you 12-15 days to do so. The image below shows how much sleep ( although this is based on research measuring how long you are in bed and not necessarily asleep) Start now, so they can readjust slowly.
A bedtime routine should be simple and only take 40 minutes tops.
- Story ( a book or make one up)
Use a problem-solving approach to work it out together.
Have a meeting with your child and let him know bedtime will be changing. Let them be a part of the process. This will be easy if you are already implementing Family Meetings. Make a bedtime routine chart and set a reward for cooperative behaviour. As I am not keen on monetary rewards, here are several alternative ideas:
- Have more Special time
- Make a cake or food together
- Play football or some sport
- Play cards
- Picnic in the park
- A day off from Chores
How to Manage Transition Anxiety.
It will be very strange returning to school with a new routine and social distancing. Children who suffer from anxiety ( GAD, Social or Separation) or struggle with transitions start to experience anticipation anxiety regarding school normally about now. It’s unhelpful to avoid it, develop a ” we can do it“ approach, and ask:
- I wonder if, or maybe you might be worried about starting school
- How can I help you, would it help to…….
- I can understand you might be feeling…..and you have to go to school. I want to help you with this.
Many schools, I am sure will operate excellent graded transition plans. Children who are anxious or have special needs may need extra help with the transition. Here are some general ideas to have in place ( I will write more on this soon):
- Start early; you can never begin preparing for a transition too soon, you could do a dry run of going to the school before you start.
- Anticipate possible trouble spots ( your child may suffer from separation anxiety) and plan what to do if problems occur. You could ask for a picture of the classroom. If your child’s teacher is changing, show a new picture of the new teacher or even arrange to meet them prior to starting.
**Remember reassurance does not effectively manage anxiety, mastering the feelings, having a plan and coping skills do.**
I hope this helps everyone. If you would like a Zoom Sleep Workshop for your staff or you are a parent needing further support, then do contact me for a consultation. Stay safe and well, with love and gratitude Catherine.